Friday, August 21, 2020

Research Proposal for Food Waste

Question: Examine about theResearch Proposal for Food Waste Management in Denmark. Answer: Foundation to the issue Food being the basic segment for the endurance of human presence is the most impressive and developing industry around the globe. Food gives the vitality and nourishment as well as permit us to develop and stay sound. Over the most recent couple of decades, the modern food squander has been perceiving as a critical issue of dietary, social and natural issues. With an all out populace of about 5.4 million, a steady business condition, Denmark is one of the exceptionally evolved nations. Copenhagen, capital of Denmark alone has 20% of all out populace of Denmark. Denmark being a profoundly evolved nation, individuals there are excessively occupied and because of occupied way of life they need to keep themselves truly fit and sound. In Danish society the significance can be shown with the spending of families over DKK 88,000 million of every a year just on food and the agro-chain segment, from creation to retail, has an all out turnover of DKK 162,000 million out of a year(Napier Bjerre gaard, 2014). The entire procedure of the business in Denmark just discharges the biggest measure of ozone harming substances, with a huge 7%of absolute CO2 emanation, and on the off chance that this food isn't expended, at that point the assets utilized for this much creation are squandered. This must be controlled with some successful way provided that this wastage in food industry isn't lessening then there will be an enormous issue of absence of assets alongside some ecological and social issues. This decrease of food waste can be accomplished by various methods however among every one of these methods anticipation is the best arrangement. Anticipation will diminish the food squander and just as the assets too(Affald Spild, 2017). The executives issue Over the most recent five years Denmark has gotten one of the main European nations to battle for the food squander counteraction. What's more, the Danish Government has credited a lady, Selina Juul, who originated from Russia, for her endeavors to decrease the food squander by 25% in Denmark(Rodionova, 2017). To get some compelling methods for the decrease of over all food squander in Denmark the administration of food industry needs to examine the base of the issue. This examination will require the entire natural way of life investigation from creation to the retail benefits. For this administration needs to gather some measurable and study information regarding essential data and auxiliary information. This entire procedure will require the examination to be led diverse significant segments liable for the general wastage of food which are handling, discount retail, food administration and Household division. Every one of these segments are similarly answerable for the all out foo d squander. Subsequently, all the essential and auxiliary information must be gathered for the individual area so as to get the total comprehension of the issue. Further in the wake of gathering the necessary date the executives needs to choose the appropriate kind of approach for the research(Nielsen, 2017). This technique can be one of the underneath expressed two sorts of examines: Quantitative research Subjective research After this, the board needs to settle on some extremely significant choices for the determination of the reasonable technique to lead the examination or study. The administration needs to choose its system and wanting to direct the investigation so that the received strategy must be adoptable by the organization and the result the examination must be helpful for the company(Hesse-Biber, 2015). To direct a compelling statistical surveying, the executives needs to research the accompanying elements about the new item in advertise: Request of the market This examination will assist the administration with getting the genuine interest of the market which is imperative to control the extra and pointless creation of the food Market investigation In this specific administration needs to subgroup the market for its item by recognizing the sex, character and decision of the buyers and afterward the board needs to flexibly the amount of various kinds of food as per the utilization by various fragments of the market Research question The above research issue drives us to find a few solutions to manage the administration issues: What is the genuine interest for food? What is the interest for singular food in the market? What is the flexibly chain procedure of various items? Which food is cherished most by the market? What is the flexibly for singular food? Research objective From the above research issue we determined a few goals to finish the exploration in a viable methodology. This exploration issue gives the accompanying goals: To evaluate the exercises liable for the wastage of food and recognize the nature and measure of the waste creation. To distinguish and assess the food squander counteraction in various segments liable for the significant food squander creation. To prescribe the successful and appropriate administration to lessen wastage creation. To consider diverse food squander limiting techniques and recognize the great practice for the same(Carraresi Banterle, 2015). References Affald, U., Spild, S. (2017, April). Food Wasste Prevention in Denmark: Identification of Hotspots and Potentias with Life Cycle. Recovered April 12, 2018, from Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark: Carraresi, L., Banterle, A. (2015). Agri-food Competitive Performance in EU Countries: A Fifteen-Year Retrospective. Universal Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 18(2), 37-61. Hesse-Biber, S. (2015). The Problems and Prespects in the Teaching of Mixed Methods Research. Worldwide Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(5). Napier, G., Bjerregaard, H. (2014). Towards An International Food Cluster in Denmark. Recovered April 12, 2018, from Danish Food Cluster: Nielsen, M. M. (2017). eGovernance Framework for Successful Citizen Use of Online Services: A Danish-Japanese Comparative Analysis. Diary of Democracy (JeDEM), 9(2), 68-109. Rodionova, Z. (2017). Denmark Reduces Food Wastte by 25% in Five Years eith the Help of One Woman-Selina Juul. Recovered April 12, 2018, from autonomous: food-squander 25-percent-five-years-help-selina-juul-scandanavia-a7604061.html

Saturday, July 11, 2020

Research Writing for Different Types of Articles

Research Writing for Different Types of ArticlesResearch writing is a type of creative writing that was developed to utilize the objective research with regard to any subject matter. This is a modern form of writing with the capability to explain, analyse and document through and by the author on research data sources.The role of this writing varies in every field. Every field has their own specialities that make the entire process interesting and exciting. For example, medical science writing has different tasks to do in relation to finding the best solution to the patient's problem. The topic can be the recovery from surgery or the health of the human body.In the medical field the main aim of research writing is to provide the details in the form of reports and texts, which are scientifically and medically formulated. Therefore, most research papers for which the author will be paid, would be written in the form of a medical text.Writing academic papers for a degree program is quit e an easy way to get that person more fame and renown. Research writing for writing is a very attractive way to produce literature and to give necessary references to people as well.Research writing is not merely done by academic writers but also by people in other fields of the society. If you need the first-person report about an event or a person, you can always call the reliable sources or try to find the article in a very good paper, which has already been written by the people who were involved in the events. Information has a hard time to find its owner and the writer can provide it just by looking for them. But the amount of money required to buy a paper, which was written by someone else, can easily be obtained with an article writing job.Research writing for school subjects such as math, English, history, sociology, psychology and etc., is also one of the different types of information written. School teachers and professors will certainly require for their information in the form of simple notes. There are a lot of websites which provide the detailed information on what has been written in the form of research writing.These websites have an extensive database of available articles, which have been written by different authors and through these websites, there are various online sources that allow the interested party to hire the articles written by anyone for any purpose. The costs of hiring the articles are comparatively lower than hiring the writer. It is very much cheaper than hiring a writer to write a piece on your behalf.The writer will have full knowledge about the subject that has been used to write the article and it does not limit on the style of writing. Therefore, the writers are capable of writing a piece on any topic and they may even possess different interests in order to write a piece in a particular genre.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Psychology And Social Behavior - 721 Words

Participants There were 630 participants in the experiment, they were all first-year psychology students who study at the university of Canterbury. Apparatus Stimuli The apparatus the participants use are desktop computers to answer the questionnaire. The main stimulus in the experiment was the BAS and BIS scale. BAS is used to measure the approach motivation and BIS measures the anxiety of the participants. Procedure Initially the participants filled in a volume of questions in order to establish their personal BIS BAS trait level. In the questionnaire participants are asked to rate how much the agree with a statement from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). After establishing these personality variables, the participants†¦show more content†¦Results The data has excluded 5 participants because their information was not fully completed and their data was not analysed. The independent variable of the experiment the group the participants were random assigned to the economic uncertainty condition or the control condition of the article. The dependent variable in this experiment was the amount of risk taking each participant made on a scale of 1 being completely risk averse and 2 being solely risk taking. The experiment also measured approach motivation with the BAS scale and anxiety with the BIS scale. The results of our data clearly display the framing effect, as shown by people taking more risks in conditions where decisions were framed as losses in comparison to gains, even when both decisions were equal mathematically. The primary results indicated that there was no main effect of risk taking and economic uncertainty. Furthermore, there was no link found between the economic uncertainty and the trait approach motivation on risky decision making. Overall both main hypothesises were not supported by the data. In exploratory analyses of the data reveals there is an interaction effect between the economic uncertainty group and trait anxiety on risky decision making. This can be seen in figure 1 as people with high trait anxiety that are randomly assigned to the economic uncertainty group demonstratedShow MoreRelatedSocial Psychology And Its Impact On Individual Behavior1262 Words   |  6 PagesSocial psychology has evolved through history and its developments and contributions have been remarkable. This specialized area of psychology studies various topics that are significant for human beings (Ross, Lepper, Ward, 2010). This paper presents with an overview of social psychology by addressing its central themes, strengths, limitations, relevance, and the significance of cultural considerations. Central themes Three central themes are apparent in social psychology research. 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Therefore, for change to exist for the entire society it would have to be within those relationships. When observing and studying social change it is generally a type of psychology termed â€Å"social psychology.† According to the American Psychological Association, social psychology is defined as, â€Å"the branch of psychology that studies theRead MoreSocial Psychology Investigate People s Behaviors Within Group Interaction2436 Words   |  10 PagesAbstract The relatively new science, called Social psychology investigate people’s behaviors within group interactions by using researcher’s knowledge of stereotypes and heuristics (Baron, A. Robert, Branscombe, R. Nyla, pp. 37 183). The way people feel about other individuals and behave within their groups is determine by their quick judgments of others. Whenever quick judgments of others are made, representations of â€Å"that kind of person† is created and stored into memory. Typically anyone notRead MoreSocial Psychology : How The Thoughts, Feelings And Behaviors Of Individuals Are Influenced By Other People2525 Words   |  11 PagesSocial psychology is the scientific attempt to explain how the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of individuals are influenced with the presence or implied presence of others. This classic definition of social psychology expresses that people are influenced by other people to do things they would not normally do if alone. For example, a person may be more encouraged to do strange things if others are doing it as well. Stage hypnotism is a form of entertainment found in parties and other social eventsRead MoreUnderstanding Social Psychology And How Relationships With Others Can Influence An Individual s Thoughts And Behaviors966 Words   |  4 PagesWhen studying social psychology, it is essential for one to understand social groups, how they work, and how relationships with others can influence an individual’s thoughts and behaviors. For this reason, a full understanding of cooperation is necessary for social psychologists. Defining Cooperation Cooperation has several components, and therefore must be broken down when being defined. Most importantly, it involves multiple people in any sort of beneficial relationship; that is, the outcomeRead MoreSocial Psychology Definition Paper1122 Words   |  5 PagesSocial Psychology Definition Paper Sinthia Brye PSY/ 400 August 30, 2010 Joyce Willis Social Psychology Introduction Social psychology it observes as the influence of our situations with special attention on how we view and affect one another. Social psychology perceives the way we think, influence people, and relates to others. Social psychology lies at psychology’s boundary with sociology, which sociology is the study of people in groups and societies? Social psychology is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on William Shakespeare The Tempest - 561 Words

William Shakespeare: The Tempest How is fate used by Shakespeare, in the Tempest, to change and control the range of characters, using Prospero’s power and his magic? In Literature, Destiny or Fate is a source of irony in literature; where the characters may act without realising the destiny that the audience or reader is aware of. This is very much true to that of the plot in the Tempest. Shakespeare has used Prospero’s craft of magic, his great source of power, to influence and change the fates of other characters in the play; for personal gain or for the good of others. His personal gain is seen by his plan to use his power and magic for his vengeance against his brother Antonio, whom usurped†¦show more content†¦We are then introduced to Ariel, a magical spirit in service to Prospero, who has obeyed Prospero’s commands to separate Alonso’s ship from the rest of the fleet, causing them to believe that the king and his party had drowned. He has frightened the courtiers so that they have abandoned ship. He has seen to it essentially that each one of them is safe and that they are merely split up, confused and wear iless. In particular this of Alonso’s son, Ferdinand, is alone as instructed by Prospero to Ariel. This passage comes from the second scene of the first act and is significant in introducing the audience to the island and its dwellers. Prospero’s power is stressed and perhaps the audience is encouraged to think of Prospero as a godlike figure, whose power one admires but whose actions are not always understood. Power is certainly thematic in the play, whether it is the power of the elements or Prospero’s control of them. It is possible that Shakespeare is questioning the use or value of political power. Love, in its many forms, is thematic in The Tempest. 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Therefore the focuses of this paper are the implications of hegemony and class alienation, the commoditization of human subc lasses, and the commonalities with â€Å"The Tempest† and Shakespeare’s life. The analysisRead MoreThe Tempest By William Shakespeare Essay1215 Words   |  5 PagesThe greatest playwright of English literature was William Shakespeare. His final play that he wrote alone was The Tempest, the story of how the former Duke of Milan, Prospero, returned to power after being exiled on an island for twelve years. While reading The Tempest, it is hard not to notice the ambivalence of the character of Prospero. Consequently, the character’s motivation and subsequent characteristics are solely defined by the reader. Typically, Prospero is seen as driven by either revengeRead MoreThe Tempest by William Shakespeare1042 Words   |  4 Pages William Shakespeare uses the events of the plot to present a theme of how a lust for power can drive actions. 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William Shakespeare wrote The Tempest in the early 1600’s, a time when England was beginning to assert itself as a superpower by colonizing other countries. In The Tempest Prospero is a callous character who mistreats Caliban, and as a result, Caliban becomes resentful and bitter, but unable to rule himself; ultimatelyRead MoreThe Tempest By William Shakespeare1446 Words   |  6 PagesThe Tempest is a play written by William Shakespeare around 1610 toward the end of his career as a poet and playwright. The Tempest fits in the genre of tragicomedy. The genre blends aspects of tragedy and romance together which are depicted in a humorous way. The Tempest is set on an island where its location is unspecified. The play finds Prospero and Miranda, ousted former Duke of Milan and his daughter, living in exile on an island with Caliban, its lone native inhabitant. 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Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation. Answer: Introduction Quality management is a critical requirement across all healthcare organizations. Building patient centric quality management is considered of utmost importance. Several tools and standards are imposed by healthcare managers to achieve quality management. The primary role of pharmacy professionals and healthcare managers is to provide high quality healthcare, while ensuring that the patient is taken care of (Lee et al., 2012). The managers are responsible for ensuring that the regulations and processes are being adhered to. They keep a check on adaptation of the standards and instill the processes into the healthcare setting, with the aim of assuring patient safety and satisfaction. The job of a healthcare manager is undoubtedly demanding and difficult (Batalden et al., 2015). The topic is essential in IT industry owing to the fact that healthcare management is one of the fastest growing industries. The need for comprehensive healthcare practices is ever-increasing due to population explosion and development in science. Thus, the practices involved in healthcare management need to be continuously improved to satisfy the ever-increasing market. With rise in health expenses and increase in competition, managers must be prepared to effectively lead the hospital settings. Managers combine a sound understanding of healthcare system with business expertise and work toward increasing effectiveness and efficiency. Rapid reforms and innovation have made delivery of quality care central to hospital management (Kirkpatrick et al., 2013). This can be accounted for the fact that the federal government and the patients expect delivery of results by skilled management professionals. However, the managers need to overcome several challenges to improve patient care and maintain fiscal responsibility.This report will therefore illustrate on the different challenges faced by pharmacy professionals and healthcare managers in hospital settings. The report will focus on a literature review to illustrate the several challenges faced by healthcare managers across large hospitals. A particular study aimed to formally evaluate the healthcare programs to understand the challenges that occur in healthcare settings while improving care quality. The study further tried to identify the ways by which the challenges could be addressed. Lessons from the Health Foundations improvement programmes were integrated with relevant literature. Several reports were read and carefully analysed. NVivo software was used to undertake the analysis. This was followed by conduction of a narrative review of the organizational factors that would likely hinder efforts of improvement. The analysis helped in the identification of 10 key challenges that were related to improvement interventions and professional context. The fundamental challenge identified was failure to convince people that there was a need to address the real problem. While planning and designing interventions, the healthcare managers must carefully target the problems that are more likely to be accepted across the hospit al setting. The study identified other challenges at the planning stage, which included contest of the chosen interventions due to lack of sufficient evidence, poor data collection and lack of adequate monitoring, lack of expertise and inadequate financial support, managerial skills and infrastructure. The findings also provided evidence that lack of work culture, inadequate organizational capacity can create emotional exhaustion create adverse outcomes. Lack of engagement of staff and failure to overcome lack of ownership and low leadership skills were also recognized by the study as one of the biggest challenges (Dixon-Woods, McNicol Martin, 2012). Another study was conducted to identify the roles of pharmacists in pharmacogenomics implementation. The specific resources and responsibilities needed for pharmacy professionals to execute their roles had not yet been defined. The study identified the roles of pharmacy professionals by summarizing the results obtained from a clopidogrel-CYP2C19pilot project. The project involved administration of antiplatelet therapies for patients who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention and stent placement. More than 1000 patients were genotyped. The results revealed the essential roles of pharmacy professionals. These roles and responsibilities included expertise in developing electronic medical records and clinical decision support system (pharmacy informatics), implementing medication safety, adhering to medication regulations and policies, developing educational strategies and logistically using all drug related information and database management approaches in patient care centres . Pharmacy professionals are also involved in solving ethical issues related to patient care. The results suggested that 14 pharmacists were involved in the program during the first 2 years of study and needed to develop an expertise in pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenomics and informatics to achieve holistic patient care (Owusu?Obeng et al., 2014). The role of healthcare managers in implementation of innovative healthcare was demonstrated by another study. The study results proved that these managers play a key role in implementing healthcare innovation. The gap that existed between practice and effective care evidences was attributed to poor implementation of healthcare innovations. The study suggested that managers are involved in influencing healthcare innovation implementation by actively synthesizing and diffusing information, mediating between daily activities and strategies, and selling the innovations to important stakeholders. It emphasized on the fact that teamwork designs are essential for the functioning of healthcare organizations. It showed that healthcare managers are entitled with the responsibility of overseeing team initiatives. This enhances their potential to influence implementation of innovative techniques (Birken, Lee Weiner, 2012). Another study attempted to evaluate the attitude, knowledge, and proficiency of pharmacy graduates in the practice of evidence based medicine. Pre and post survey studies and skill tests were conducted among the sample with the help of a valid questionnaire with the aim of comprehending the transformation in the knowledge of pharmacy professionals during their transition to a hospital setting. The skills gained by pharmacy undergraduates were assessed and statistically analysed. A series of Problem Based Learning were conducted followed by administration of pre and post-test and the competencies were assessed. On analysis of the data using IBM SPSS v20.0 ANCOVA software, it was found that majority of the students could formulate PICO questions and apply them in the healthcare setting after taking the pharmacy course. One of the major challenges identified was the lack of adequate role models who would promote the culture of evidence based practice on the hospital wards. A change in t he behavior of senior pharmacists on the use of EBP methods was needed to create a significant impact in the minds of junior pharmacy professionals that would in turn improve the quality of patient care in near future. Another challenge that pharmacy professionals face is the lack of exposure to pharmacy informatics. This weakens their approach to searching for drug information. Moreover, they are often unable to handle statistical information in large hospital settings (Abu-Gharbieh et al., 2015). A systematic content analysis was performed to identify the challenges and opportunities in social pharmacy and pharmacy practice. Narrowly focused pharmacy services, lack of consensus, pressure on publishing the research results and reduction in research funding add to the challenges. The study suggested that creating provisions for patient-oriented healthcare services and dispensing medication in a proper manner are some of the key issues that are faced by pharmacy professionals and healthcare managers (Almarsdttir, Kaae Traulsen, 2014). The research challenges faced in context awareness and computation communication for ubiquitious healthcare were investigated by another study. The study stated that specialized instructions and rising costs of hospitalizations created major problems for healthcare manages in real-time hospital settings. The major challenges faced by them as identified by the research are the discovery and provision of computing resources and wireless grid computing. The unpredictability and high mobility of the device acts as a barrier in the interaction between data providers. Reliable transmission and prioritization of vital signs of the patients posed another challenge. Additional interference occurs due to proliferation of electronic devices that are used in the hospitals. Thus, the study provided an overview of the factors that create difficulty for healthcare managers to deliver personalized healthcare solutions in large hospital settings (Viswanathan, Chen Pompili, 2012). Development of a researchable question is one of the major challenging tasks that are encountered while initiating a project. A researchable question can therefore be defined as an uncertainty about a particular problem, which can be examined, challenged, and analyzed with the aim of providing useful information. Thus, a successful research depends upon good formulation of the research question based on the several problems that are faced in research activities (Lang et al., 2012). The main purpose of this literature search was to evaluate the available literature and formulate a research question that would help in future research. The research problem was of some familiarity and a topic of interest. There was a need to channelize the question by focusing on information that was yet to be explored. Once the problem was narrowed down, the existing literature was analysed and seeked and it helped to straighten research approach. The hypothesis carefully created a testimony of how the research was expected to proceed. It acted as one of the most essential tools that assisted in answering the research question. Although, the literature search was time-consuming and exhaustive, some simple steps were adopted that helped in managing the process. The steps used for the methodology are stated below: Formulating the research question A well-focused question was formulated and acted as a critical step for facilitating clinical research. There were several general and patient-oriented questions that arose from clinical issues. However, this study aimed to investigate the potential challenges that are faced by healthcare managers and pharmacy professionals in real-time hospital settings. While formulating a research question, the FINER criteria was considered (F-Feasible, I-Interesting, N-Novel, E-Ethical and R-Relevant). The idea was interesting and relevant to clinical research. It would have helped in adding information to already completed research work (Cook West, 2012). A PICO framework was used to develop the research question. It helped to focus on the exact information that was needed (Cooke, Smith Booth, 2012). The study population, intervention or indicator, comparison or benchmark and the primary outcome of the anticipated results were used for framing the question. In this particular case scenario: Population (P) Intervention (I) Comparison (C) Outcome (O) Graduate pharmacy professionals; healthcare managers; managers in hospitals Healthcare service challenges; Barriers in hospital settings Opportunities in hospital settings Effect of challenges in hospitals; preventing of barriers in healthcare settings The electronic databases used for the literature search were Medline, CINAHL and SCOPUS. The research question was translated into keywords. This increased the chance of retrieving valuable information from the search strategy. Synonyms and alternate terms were considered for eliciting further information, such as, opposition or difficulties in place of challenges, and pharmacists in place of pharmacy professionals. The spellings were also taken into account. A word-stock is used by most databases to establish common keywords or search-terms. Some of the alternative keywords were searched from database thesaurus. Another strategy used to refine the search of relevant literature was the combination of the keywords with Boolean operators. AND and OR are the three Boolean operators that were used. Combining two key terms using AND fetched articles that mentioned both the words, such as, healthcare managers AND opposition. Using OR widened the search and helped to fetch more articles that mentioned either of the terms, such as healthcare managers OR pharmacists AND opposition (Jukna Sergeev, 2013). Filters were also used to refine the search. Articles that were similar to the research topic were found and specific terms were looked for in them to use for the search. Using the abovementioned three databases provided full-text articles and reduced time for manual searching of articles. The most recent issues of journals were first searched. Articles that were peer reviewed and published in English, not prior to 2012 were selected from the databases. Articles that contained only abstracts and had a publishing date before 2012 were excluded from the literature review. A follow-up was done on the references present at the end of each article to examine more related sources. The aut henticity and quality of the selected articles were also checked to determine whether they represented systematic research (Grewal, Kataria Dhawan, 2016). Relevance of the topic The topic selected for this study intersects with management and healthcare. Health care managers are entrusted with the responsibility of overseeing the business aspects such as operations and finances of a health care organization. Their primary responsibility is to ensure that all patients admitted to the hospital or healthcare centre receive high quality care. This can be only achieved by providing all necessary resources and tools that help nurses and physicians to deliver great health care (Sanii et al., 2016).Their duties also require them to ensure that the healthcare organization is operationally and financially sound, the personnel issues are managed well and the community members are taught properly on the different health issues. Thus, they play an essential role in reducing hospitalization costs while maintaining patient satisfaction. Pharmacy professionals are also involved in dispensing medications and monitoring the health and progress of patients by optimizing their response to medication interventions. The patients are educated on proper use of prescriptions and are provided holistic based care in institutional settings (Tripathi et al., 2014). Thus, if these healthcare managers and pharmacists face challenges while carrying out their duties in a hospital setting, the overall health of the patient will deteriorate. There will be a delay in cure of the disease and elimination of symptoms, which in turn will create adverse health outcomes. Thus, the research question for this study is of extreme importance to managing patient health as identification of the key barriers or challenges on performing a literature search would assist healthcare practitioners to work towards improving the flaws, minimizing risks and maintaining overall patient health. Primary sources basically provide information that is closely related to the research topic. However, it was difficult to collect such data from interviews, surveys or questionnaires due to low sample size in the population. Therefore, secondary sources that included academic journals, books, e-journals and websites were used to gather extensive information on the challenges and barriers encountered by pharmacists and healthcare managers. The journals had a greater validity and authenticity than websites. They provided up-to-date information on the specific topic that formed the research question. The authenticity of the information presented in the websites was checked before using them. Findings and Discussion All the findings from the secondary data sources that were used for the research study suggested that pharmacy professionals and healthcare managers are involved in ensuring that a particular healthcare organization will provide direct care to the patients with the aim of improving their outcome (Oishi Murtagh, 2014). Pharmacy graduates often face transition of care that involves continuity and coordination of healthcare when patients are transferred between different settings (Gradel et al., 2016). The findings suggested that such transition in large hospital settings leads to the occurrence of frequent medication errors. These errors can be accounted for the several challenges that are faced by the professionals in the form of inadequate patient education, miscommunication, and missed patient follow-up, lack of access to computerized data entry methods and absence of patient involvement in management of medication (Oshima Lee Emanuel, 2013). Such challenges lead to inconsistent care coordination and contribute to patient admission. Thus, it can be deduced from the findings that keeping the patients central to the focus of care, enhancing inter-professional communication and collaboration and evaluating the outcomes of healthcare manager and pharmacist involvement can counterchallenge the situation (Sassoli Day, 2017). The reasons that contribute to low success rates of the pharmacy professionals and healthcare managers need to be improved in the form of promoting medication therapy management, medical reconciliation, and patient education. Minimum collaboration between the hospitals and the pharmacists and healthcare managers worsen the situation. An improvement in the hospital management will lead to financial justification that would bring more investment in pharmacist resources (Schadewaldt et al., 2014). Healthcare managers and pharmacists should involve patients in the decision-making process and should initiate conversation with them to ascertain their health literacy, attitudes, goals and preferences (Miller et al., 2014). An effective collaboration will also facilitate patient-centred care. Hospital pharmacists and healthcare managers can provide patients with reconciled medication lists that often help in eliminating the challenges faced by them (Burgess Currie, 2013). Furthermore, although they are entitled with the responsibility of identifying, preventing and correcting medication problems, an effective communication with health care providers can only help them in accomplishing their goals (Birken et al., 2016). Thus, all barriers to communication and efficient patient-centred healthcare delivery should be identified at the earliest and worked upon to promote holistic patient growth and wellbeing. Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded from the research study that the job of a pharmacist and healthcare manager is undoubtedly difficult and demanding. With the increase in competition among hospital settings and health expenses, the executives are expected to prepare themselves for effectively leading the healthcare centre during a transformational change in the system. They must overcome the key challenges that arise in such settings in order to successfully maintain fiscal responsibility and improve patient care.The pharmacy professionals and managers should put a plan in proper place to address shortage of hospital staff and competition among employees. Enhancing the skills of hiring, recruiting, and retaining qualified healthcare professionals would also help them in meeting the challenges. There is a need to build strong interprofessional relationships with institutes that offer degrees in pharmacy and healthcare administration and the local hospital settings. Additionally, collaborative work to make the hospitals attractive, thinking beyond competitive benefits and pay and will also ensure that all individual employees feel connected to the hospital and exhibit a passion for working towards improvement of the organization. In order to compete for patients, the healthcare managers should be prepared for setting the hospitals apart by formulating specialized care strategy. They must investigate other specialty healthcare services in the region and identify the areas of opportunity. Technology also acts as a major barrier. Electronic medical record systems are now being used to seamlessly share patient information. The pharmacists and healthcare managers must ensure effective implementation of EMRs within the healthcare organization. They need to develop IT skills to make evidence-based decisions while integrating technological information. This will largely abolish the prevalence of the key challenges and will improve organizational and patient outcomes. Thus, it can be concluded that pharmacists and healthcare managers are responsible for ensuring that the hospitals operate efficiently. They also work towards providing quality medical care to their patients. 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Thursday, April 23, 2020

Memory Essays - Mnemonics, Rhetoric, Memory, Dialectic,

Memory Question 4: There are many techniques which have been developed to increase the efficiency of memory . Select 3 techniques , discuss them in detail and present examples of when they can be used. In the world today it is a must to be able to remember things. Memory is a big part in everyone's life. Their is hardly a day that goes by when you do not have to remember something. If someone doesn't have a great memory it could cause somewhat of a down fall in their professional life. In this paper I will discuss three different memorization habits and how they can be contributed to one's everyday lifestyle. One of many ways that help people memorize things is in a verbal sense called Rhymes. Rhyming is an easy way for someone to memorize certain things. This method is most common with children in school. Many people that grow up still remember these little detailed Rhymes that help them get threw school. Rhymes are nothing other than little saying's which sometimes make no sense , but when repeated in your mind it helps your recall what is need to know . The Rhyme that I remember best was used in math class ? I ate and ate until I was sick on the floor eight times eight equals sixty-four ?' that saying is really kind of ridiculous , but I always new what eight times eight was . There are so many saying's out there and everyone of them will help anyone memorize. Rhymes have been and always will have a big impact on helping people in memorization. Another strategy to help on to memorize things is called Acrostics. Acrostics is nothing more than a saying in which the first letter of each word of the saying is the cue to help recall information you need to know . This method is very similar to the method of Rhyming , but you only use the one letter from each word to represent the cue for your needed information. One of the Acrostic phrases that many people were taught for learning notes in music class was ?' Every good boy does fine ?' . This saying helps people remember notes E, G, B, D, and F , which are five main chords, in order , used in music. Acrostic is not used as much as Rhyme; however, though they are very similar in style. Many people use this method , but really have no idea what it is called nor really care as long as it works , and it does . All people tend to do things the easy way , and their is nothing wrong with that as long as it works . There are certain methods for everything and it always helps to have some help when needed.The third method that will be discussed is the method of Loci. The method of Loci involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations . The first step is to commit to memory a series of loci, or places along a path. Usually these loci are specific locations in your home or neighborhood. Then envision each thing you want to remember in one of these locations. Try to form vivid images . When you need to remember the things , imagine yourself on your path , which should serve as cues for the retrieval of the images you have formed ( Wayne Weiten, 2000 ). The usefulness of Loci helps assure yourself of remembering items in a certain order and the order is determined by the location sequence along the certain path. In this paper I have discussed and gave examples for three different ways to improve one's memory. There are many other methods in to help with memorization ;however , I believe these are the three most common used help methods. Each method has it's own direct way in helping one to memorize something for long periods of time. Memorizing is a everyday thing that is nearly necessary for everyday life. People have methods for doing everything and just because you do something one way doesn't make